Corresponding Author

Wanda Maulding Green


There is general agreement and the research supports the contention that school leadership is related to student learning/achievement (Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Ross & Gray, 2006; Francera & Bliss, 2011; Shatzer, Caldarella, Hallam, & Brown, 2014). However, the nature and strength of that relationship is still uncertain. Identifying the effects, whether direct or indirect, leaders have on student learning/achievement is imperative to the further development of school leadership theory. Direct leader effects on student achievement/learning may be identified at some point. However, given that a leader impacts many factors related to student achievement/learning indirectly, the identification of indirect leader effects on student achievement/learning seems more likely. This study examined the relationships between and among school leader behaviors, leader emotional intelligence, and teacher efficacy.

The findings revealed that leader behaviors were found to be inversely correlated to general teaching efficacy but that leadership behaviors and leader emotional intelligence were positively correlated. Also, leader emotional intelligence was found to be positively correlated (though weakly or moderately) to general teaching efficacy, and/or personal teacher efficacy.