Corresponding Author

Mitch Butterworth


This study broadly addresses some of the criticisms associated with authentic leadership theory related to measurement and antecedents. Measurement: One purpose of this study was to verify the dimensionality of authentic leadership by testing the construct validity of three measures for authentic leadership: the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ), the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI), and the Authentic Leadership Integrated Questionnaire (AL-IQ), proposed by Levesque-Cote et al. (2018) as an improvement on the previous two scales. This study was designed to replicate and extend Levesque-Cote et al. (2018) study with an English-speaking sample to further test the structural validity of the AL-IQ. This study was not designed to test the nomological network, associated outcomes for Authentic Leadership, or convergent and divergent validity. As such, we first employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), experimental structural equation modeling (ESEM), and bifactor analytic modeling (BAM) to validate the structure of the two original scales and the combined AL-IQ. In line with the Levesque-Cote et al. (2018) study, a four-factor ESEM model best fit the data for the AL-IQ, suggesting that the scale will work similarly in English-speaking samples. Antecedents: A second purpose of this study was to examine correlations between the three measures of authentic leadership and the perceived emotional intelligence of leaders. This study failed to establish discriminant validity between authentic leadership and emotional intelligence, as there were very strong correlations between all four scales, suggesting that emotional intelligence is an essential part of authentic leadership.