This paper proposes a future-driven leadership theory—the optimistic leadership theory—suitable for leading global organizations in the 21st century and beyond. The author argues that a new leadership approach is needed for these organizations due to the complexities that come with globalization, including the high need for knowledge and experience, distance decay, and cultural amalgamation. Five leadership approaches (Visionary Leadership, Differentiated Leadership, Servant Leadership, Flexible Leadership, and Reflective Leadership) are identified as the components of optimistic leadership. Following a review of the rare literature on these five leadership approaches, they are found to constitute the best determinants of successful future-driven leadership. There is an overlap of some approaches and some are within other leadership theories such as transformation leadership. A model of optimistic leadership is suggested, and a test based on the variables is proposed.
Techo, Vincent P.
"Optimistic Leadership for the 21st Century and Beyond,"
The Journal of Values-Based Leadership: Vol. 14
, Article 8.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/jvbl/vol14/iss2/8