Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of conditions of unknown etiology, represented by Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis and characterized by the presence of intestinal wall inflammation. From the first cases described to date, several studies have been performed to elucidate the cause of inflammatory bowel disease. Generally, the genetic factors predispose to their occurrence while epigenetic and environmental factors trigger them. Genetic factors are mutations of the genes involved in the response and recognition of immune cells to different pathogens. The most studied epigenetic and environmental factors are smoking (which predisposes to Crohn’s disease and can be protective for ulcerative colitis), lack of vitamin D, a diet rich in sugars and low in flavonoids and fibers. The diagnosis is usually established by endoscopy and biopsy. Recent technologies can perform live biopsies such as endocytoscopy or confocal laser endomicroscopy, with an accuracy of 100% compared to classical methods. Therapy involves several classes of drugs, preferably in association with diet and lifestyle changes. In case of complications or in non-responsive diseases, surgery must be considered, as documented for ulcerative colitis that can be cured by removing the entire colon. The purpose of this review is to present recent findings on pathology, as well as modern diagnosis and treatment methods for IBD.
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Silaghi, Adrian; Constantin, Vlad Denis; Socea, Bogdan; Banu, Petrișor; Sandu, Vladimir; Andronache, Liliana Florina; Dumitriu, Anca Silvia; and Paunica, Stana
"Inflammatory bowel disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis and current therapeutic approach,"
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences: Vol. 9:
1, Article 6.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/jmms/vol9/iss1/6