Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is known as the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder in the United States, leading to substantial morbidity, although associated mortality is rare. Based on the appearance of esophageal mucosa on upper endoscopy, GERD is divided into erosive esophagitis (ERD) and nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). Heartburn and acid regurgitation are the typical symptoms of the disease, although some patients may present atypical manifestations such as epigastric pain, nausea, asthma, chronic cough, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sleep disturbances, otitis, and sinusitis. Other signs, such as oral mucosal lesions may result from GERD by direct acid or acidic vapor contact in the oral cavity. Oral manifestations such as tooth erosion, periodontitis, gingivitis, palatal erythema, ulceration, glossitis, oral acid burning sensation, halitosis, xerostomia have recently been reported in GERD patients. A considerable percentage of the patients are affected by oral manifestations before the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, although in most cases the gastrointestinal signs and symptoms dominate the clinical picture. The injured oral mucosa negatively impacts the quality of life, especially functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities, thus leading to social isolation. There is plenty of non-standardized information on the oral mucosal changes in GERD. In this context, we aimed at synthesizing and analyzing the current available evidence on non-dental oral cavity lesions and complaints that are present in patients diagnosed with GERD.
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Indre, Madalina-Gabriela; Sampelean, Darius; Taru, Vlad; Cozma, Angela; Sampelean, Dorel; Milaciu, Mircea Vasile; and Orasan, Olga Hilda
"Non-dental oral cavity findings in gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,"
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences: Vol. 8
, Article 9.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/jmms/vol8/iss1/9