According to World Health Organization (WHO), fetal death is defined as the death of the fetus prior to its complete expulsion, independent of the duration of pregnancy, thus only ascribing the term stillbirth to fetal deaths in the case of pregnancies after 28 weeks of gestation. The great progress of perinatology care is reflected in a significant reduction in the rate of stillbirths, especially in well-developed countries, with approximately 98% of stillbirth cases now occurring in poor and developing countries. Stillbirth powerfully impacts both the patient and the practitioner. Because nearly half of stillbirth cases result from apparently uncomplicated pregnancies, we considered it critical to review the known predictive markers for intrauterine fetal death. In both preterm and term infants, perinatal mortality is increased in fetuses small for their gestational age, and this risk grows proportionally with the severity of the fetal growth restriction. A protracted first stage of labor has not been associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but a prolonged second stage of labor has been associated with mortality and neonatal morbidity characterized by sepsis, seizures, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Ultrasound examination of the placenta and the umbilical cord is essential for appropriate pregnancy monitoring. Various findings from ultrasound examination have been related to variable adverse perinatal outcomes, including intrauterine fetal death. After reviewing the evidence for predictors of intrauterine fetal death, we offer a general strategy for reducing the likelihood of stillbirths.
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Bohiltea, Roxana; Turcan, Natalia; Cavinder, Christina M.; Ducu, Ionită; Paunica, Ioana; Andronache, Liliana Florina; and Cirstoiu, Monica Mihaela
"Risk factors, predictive markers and prevention strategies for intrauterine fetal death. An integrative review,"
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences: Vol. 7
, Article 10.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/jmms/vol7/iss1/10