The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of primary renal hydatidosis. A thorough review of the literature was made using the PubMed database. Cystic echinococcosis is a disease that results from infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, a tiny tapeworm found in dogs (definitive host), sheep, cattle, goats, foxes and pigs, amongst others (intermediate hosts).
Humans are accidentally intermediate hosts, who become infected by direct contact with infected dogs, by ingesting contaminated raw or undercooked vegetables or by drinking contaminated water. Renal involvement by hydatid disease is uncommon (less than 3-4%), most cystic lesions occurring in the lungs or liver. Patients may be asymptomatic or they can present with flank pain, hematuria or hypertension. Hydaturia, considered a pathognomonic sign, is seen in less than 20% of cases.
Imaging investigations are essential in making the correct diagnosis, the most commonly used means being ultrasonography and CT scans. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, but other therapeutic options are also available.
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Iorga, Lucian; Anghel, Radu; Marcu, Dragos; Socea, Bogdan; Diaconu, Camelia C.; Bratu, Ovidiu G.; Andronache, Liliana F.; Paunica, Stana; and Mischianu, Dan Liviu Dorel
"Primary renal hydatid cyst – A review,"
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences: Vol. 6:
1, Article 9.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/jmms/vol6/iss1/9