A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions

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An experiment is presented that has the student execute a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction. The reaction can be carried out either through use of a microwave reactor or by allowing the mixture to stand at room temperature for two days. The student is then challenged to identify the reaction product through a guided prelab exercise of the synthesis of the Hagemann ester, and then through GC–MS, NMR, and IR spectra of the product. The stereochemistry of the product is determined through the NMR spectrum and the Karplus curve. The student is required to write a mechanism for the reaction.