Document Type

Peer-Review Article



Southwood (1973) concluded that pollen feeding was probably the first step in the development of the phytophagous habit in insects, because pollen, compared with plant foliage, is rich in nutrients and low in sewndary defense substances. Surprisingly, little is known about insects that feed mainly on pollen. For example, in a bibliography of insects that feed on reproductive structures of North American conifers (Barcia and Merkel, 1972), less than three per cent of 719 references pertained to pollen feeders. This note reports on the kinds and abundance of insects found inhabiting clusters of fresh staminate or male strobili (MS) of 60- to 65-year-old red pine trees in two seed production areas (SPAs) in northern Minnesota.

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