Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the most common plantation Christmas tree in the northeastern United States. In its large native range, covering much of Europe and Asia, this species is valued highly for timber. Its adaptability to various sites and uses is partly a result of its high degree of genetic variability. For example, varieties differ widely in cold resistance, winter foliage color, growth rate, and needle length.
Unfortunately, however, Scotch pine may be damaged by several insect pests. One of these is eastern pineshoot borer (Eucosma gloriola Heinrich). According to Drooz (1960), this insect is native to the area east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and the northern United States, and attacks many important conifers. Its favorite hosts are Scotch pine and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.).
"Genetic Differences in Resistance of Scotch Pine to Eastern Pineshoot Borer,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 7
, Article 2.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol7/iss4/2