Document Type

Peer-Review Article


(excerpt) While collecting newly metalnorphosed American toads, Bufo anlericanus Holbrook, we have observed that they exhibited evasive behavior similar to that of adults of the wolf spiders, Pardosa saxatilis (Hentz), Pirata insularis Emerton, Pirata arerzicola Emerton, Pirata piratica (Oliver), and adults of the ground beetle, Elaplrrus ruscarius Say. When pursued or disturbed, the spiders, beetles and toads ran across the pound rapidly for short distances (ca. 1-50 cm). They then stopped abruptly and remained motionless. If they were further pursued, this escape sequence was repeated in the same or another direction. Toads and spiders occasionally moved to shallow water to avoid capture. Spiders ran across the water surface whereas the toads swam partially submerged. N'e observed this resemblance in evasive behavior on numerous occasions at ponds on the south edge of Carbondale, Illinois (spiders and toads), 1 krn west of Grinnell, Iowa (spiders and toads), and 1.5 km west of Bloomington, Illinois (spiders, toads and beetles). (Specimens were collected for identification from the latter site.)

Included in

Entomology Commons



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