Document Type

Peer-Review Article


In this paper, we describe lessons learned and protocols developed after a decade of rearing Ceutorhynchus scrobicollis Nerenscheimer and Wagner in a Biosafety Level 2 containment facility. We have developed these protocols in anticipation of approval to release C. scrobicollis in North America for the biocontrol of garlic mustard. The rearing protocol tried to minimize the potential of attack by the adult parasitoid, Perilitus conseutor, which may be present in field collected C. scrobicollis from Europe to prevent inadvertent introduction of parasitoids into North America.

All C. scrobicollis used for our quarantine rearing were field collected near Berlin, Germany. We have successfully reared C. scrobicollis on caged garlic mustard plants in a growth chamber by alternating temperatures and photoperiods to simulate those in its native range. In Germany, C. scrobicollis produces one generation per year and F1 adults emerge in late May. In containment, a new generation of adults emerged an average of 108 days after adults were placed on plants. We found the optimal time spent to collect F1 adults was four weeks after the appearance of the first F1 adult, with 95% of potential adults collected. Simulating a three-month summer aestivation period, followed by a week of fall, and three weeks of winter conditions resulted in optimum levels of oviposition in F1 females. Larvae first hatched 8- to-10 days after adults were placed on plants at 15/14 C day/night temperatures with a 9.5 hour photoperiod. We therefore recommend that C. scrobicollis adults are removed from garlic mustard rosettes after 8 days. This will maximize the period of female oviposition while minimizing the time when larvae are available for attack from P. conseutor.

Included in

Entomology Commons



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