A survey for etomopathogenic nematodes and fungi in alfalfa snout beetle Otiorhynchus ligustici (L.) infested fields was conducted in Hungary, where this beetle is native, and in New York State, where the alfalfa snout beetle is an invasive species. Soil samples were collected in Hungary and in New York in alfalfa snout beetle infested alfalfa fields in spring 2002. Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae were used as bait insects. The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were found in Hungary and New York. The frequency of plots with entomopathogenic fungi was not significantly different between locations in Hungary and New York. The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis sp. were found in Hungary and New York and S. feltiae was only found in Hungary. The frequency of plots with entomopathogenic nematodes was not significantly different between locations in Hungary and New York. S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae were found in coexistence at one location in Hungary.
Neumann, Gabor and Shields, Elson J.
"Survey for Etomopathogenic Nematodes and Entomopathogenic Fungi in Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Otiorhynchus Ligustici (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Infested Fields in Hungary and in New York State,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 37
, Article 6.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol37/iss2/6