Document Type

Peer-Review Article


Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is a pine (Pinus spp.) pest native to Eurasia and northern Africa. In December 2000, an established population of H. ligniperda was discovered in Monroe County, New York. When surveys were initiated to determine the distribution of H. ligniperda, questions arose regarding the most effective trap and lure for survey purposes. We conducted a study in April-May 2001 to compare the effectiveness of commercially available scolytid traps and lures for attracting and capturing H. ligniperda. Traps tested included: 1) 12-unit Lindgren funnel trap, 2) Intercept panel trap, and 3) Theysohn slot-trap. Lures tested included: 1) α-pinene high release (750 mg/day) and ethanol (280 mg/ day), 2) α-pinene low release (300 mg/day) and ethanol, 3) β-pinene high release (2000 mg/day) and ethanol, 4) α-pinene low release, and 5) the “exotic bark beetle lure” [ipsdienol (0.15 mg/day), cis-verbenol (0.35 mg/day), and methylbutenol (10 mg/day)]. All three trap designs captured H. ligniperda, however, the Lindgren funnel trap caught significantly higher numbers. Capture rates of Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Hylastes opacus were highest in Lindgren funnel traps; whereas Orthotomicus caelatus collections were highest in Theysohn traps. Capture rates of Ips grandicollis and Xyleborinus saxeseni did not vary significantly among trap types. Behavioral differences among scolytid species such as visual stimuli, flight and landing behavior, and host selection may explain some of these differences. Lures containing α-pinene or β-pinene and ethanol were most attractive to H. ligniperda adults, with ethanol and high-release α-pinene attracting the highest numbers in absolute terms. The exotic bark beetle lure was the least attractive lure to H. ligniperda. Attractiveness of the lures tested varied significantly for other Scolytidae, including Dendroctonus valens, H. opacus, Ips calligraphus, I. grandicollis, I. pini, O. caelatus, T. piniperda, and X. saxeseni. These differences likely were due to variation in lure release rates, host preferences, and/or species-specific pheromone attraction.

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