The impacts of entomopathogens (e.g., fungi, bacteria, protists and viruses) on larval Lepidoptera and their associated insect parasitoids have been examined in laboratory studies but field studies of interaction between these two mortality factors are rare. We present field observations of concurrent insect parasitism and fungal disease infection in larvae of the green cloverworm, Hypena scabra, a sporadic pest of soybean (Glycine max) in North America. We reared ten parasitoid species from H. scabra larvae during our three-month study. Three parasitoid species were dominant and overlapped the period of infection by the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi: Aleiodes nolophanae, Cotesia plathypenae and Campylochaeta plathypenae. Two of the three parasitoid species, Co. plathypenae and Ca. plathypenae, completed development within H. scabra larvae infected by N. rileyi. Overall incidence of simultaneous parasitism and fungal infection was low, averaging 6.7% of H. scabra larvae parasitized by Ca. plathypenae and 3.3% of those parasitized by Co. plathypenae.
Pavuk, Daniel M. and Williams, Charles E.
"Simultaneous Parasitism of Field-Collected Green Cloverworm, Hypena Scabra (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae by Endoparasitioids and an Entomopathogenic Fungus,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 36
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol36/iss2/4