House fly and stable fly pupae were collected during the summer from a dairy farm in northern Illinois. Spalangia nigroaenea accounted for most of the parasitoids recovered from house flies. Spalangia nigra, S. endius, Muscidifurax spp., and S. nigroaenea accounted for most of the parasitoids from stable flies. The majority of flies were house flies late in the summer and stable flies early in the summer. Higher percentages of house flies tended to be in samples containing lower substrate moisture and higher substrate temperature. Parasitism of stable flies started earlier and peaked weeks before that of house flies, with overall parasitism highest from mid-to late-summer. Parasitism of house flies, but not stable flies, differed significantly among habitats, being greater in calf hutches than in edge samples. Hymenopterous parasitoids from house flies tended to include a greater percentage of S. nigroaenea (and a lower percentage of Muscidifurax spp.) in calf hutches versus drainage or edge habitats and in sub- strates consisting of mostly wood shavings versus mostly manure. Within samples, differential parasitism of fly species was not detected for S. nigroaenea, S. endius, or Muscidifurax spp.; but S. nigra preferentially parasitized stable flies.
Olbrich, D. L. and King, B. H.
"Host and Habitat Use by Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) of House Fly and Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Pupae,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 36
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol36/iss2/10