Papilio canadensis were sampled from three locations on either side of Lake Michigan to study gene flow near and through a butterfly hybrid zone. Allele frequencies at four polymorphic enzyme loci, as indicated by allozyme electrophoresis, were similar in all samples. Values for FST were close to zero, indicating that gene flow is high among these populations, even when separated by Lake Michigan. We developed a mitochondrial DNA marker with diagnostic differences between P. canadensis and its parapatric sister species Papilio glaucus, based on PCR-RFLP. P. glaucus haplotypes of this mtDNA marker and P. glaucus alleles of a diagnostic allozyme locus (PGD) were found in P. canadensis populations sampled in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula but not in the Upper Peninsula or Northern Minnesota. The presence of P. glaucus alleles in P. canadensis populations could be due to introgression through hybridization, or could be remnants of a P. glaucus population that was inundated by an influx of P. canadensis alleles.
Stump, Aram D.; Sperling, F.A. H.; Crim, Amber; and Scriber, J. Mark
"Gene Flow Between Great Lakes Region Populations of the Canadian Tiger Swallowtail Butterfly, Papilio Canadensis, Near the Hybrid Zone With P. Glaucus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae),"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 36
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol36/iss1/8