The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is a univoltine pest of pine in its native range of Europe and Asia. Tomicus piniperda is now widely established in the Great Lakes region and poses a potentially significant threat to other pine-producing areas in North America. An unusual aspect of the life history of T. piniperda is the extended period of maturation-feeding that takes place in the shoots of living pine trees and subsequent overwintering before adults reproduce the following year. We investigated the extent to which shoot-feeding is required by newly-emerged T. piniperda before introduction into Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) logs and before any overwintering, in order for successful reproduction to occur. Tomicus piniperda F1 adults successfully reproduced in pine logs in the laboratory after either no shoot-feeding or after 2 to 10 weeks of shoot-feeding. Thus, it is theoretically possible for T. piniperda to be multivoltine, yet it remains univoltine.
Poland, Therese M. and Haack, Robert A.
"Tomicus Piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Is Shoot Feeding Required for Reproductive Maturation?,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 33
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol33/iss1/5