At 146 pine-oak barrens in central and northwestern Wisconsin USA during 1988-96, 3973 Karner blues (Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov) were found in 95.4 hr of transect surveys during spring and 6896 individuals in 134.8 hr during summer. Of these, 9346 (86%) individuals were first observed copulating, feeding, flushing, flying, or involved in a non-copulatory intraspecific interaction. All these behaviors except copulation showed density-independent influences; all these behaviors also had density-dependent influences. The most frequently significant density-independent variables affecting occurrence of these behaviors were temperature, brood (spring vs. summer), and crepuscularity (time since noon). Male (rather than female or overall) Karner blue density more often significantly related to Karner blue behavior. Males showed density dependence in feeding (positive), flushing (negative), and flying (positive threshold) while females did not. Both sexes showed strong positive density dependence in non-copulatory intraspecific interactions and copulation. Flying and intraspecific interactions showed similar influences in relation to several variables, while flying and flushing had markedly opposite patterns. Males and females were also opposite in their relative tendency to be observed flushing or flying, with females more likely to be flushing, males flying. Males also showed a greater tendency to engage in non-copulatory intraspecific interactions.
Swengel, Ann B. and Swengel, Scott R.
"Density-Dependent and -Independent Behaviors of the Adult Karner Blue (Lycaeides Melissa Samuelis) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae),"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 31
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol31/iss1/7