Fruit yield, codling moth (Cydia pomonella) damage, and plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar) damage were monitored over an 8-year period in a O.5-ha, biologically-managed apple orchard in southwestern Michigan. The relationship between yield and damage was examined for both of these pests. The orchard showed clear biennial bearing patterns of alternating high and low yields. A significant negative correlation was found for yield and percent- age damage by codling moth but not for plum curculio damage. However, the estimated amount of fruit damaged by codling moth remained relatively stable over the period, indicating that changes in percentage damage depended on yield dynamics rather than changes in codling moth abundance. In contrast, the amount of fruit damaged by plum curculio showed biennial fluctuations and a positive correlation with yield, indicating that the population of this pest was capable of responding with increased oviposition in years with greater fruit yield. In addition, a comparison of codling moth fruit injury in years with and without the use of pheromone mating disruption showed no statistically significant reduction in damage as a result of using this method, suggesting that the orchard may be too small or codling moth populations too high for effective use of this management tactic.
Clark, M. Sean and Gage, Stuart H.
"Relationship Between Fruit Yield and Damage by Codling Moth and Plum Curculio in a Biologically-Managed Apple Orchard,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 30
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol30/iss3/3