Document Type

Peer-Review Article


The Old World tephritid Urophora quadrifasciata, a gall-inducing seed- head fly, was released in western and eastern North America for the biological control of knapweeds, Centaurea spp. (Asteraceae). Its establishment in the West (BC, CA, ID, MT, OR, WA) and in the East (CT, MA, MD, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, WV) has been previously reported. Collections from eastern Minnesota and western Michigan in 1995 are the first for the Northcentral region of North America.

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Entomology Commons