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Document Type

Peer-Review Article

Abstract

A comparative study was conducted of the field life histories of Euschistus servus and E. varialarius in southern Illinois, their life cycles under controlled laboratory conditions, and their immature stages.

The results indicate that E. servus is bivoltine and E. variolarius is univoltine. Adults of both species emerged from overwintering sites during early April, began feeding and copulating on leaves of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and surrounding vegetation, and reproduced shortly thereafter. Neither eggs and first instars of either species, nor second instars of E. variolarius, were collected in the field. Seasonal occurrences of the adults and subsequent immature stages are discussed for each species. No individuals were found after the first week of November.

Both species were reared on green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) under a 16L:8D photoperiod and constant temperature of 23 ± 0.06° C. The incubation period averaged 5.8 days for E. servus and 5.4 days for E. variolanus. Durations of the 5 subsequent stadia averaged, respectively, 5, 6, 6.7, 9.3, and 11.5 days for E. servus, and 4.9,5.7,7.8,9.7, and 13.3 days for E. varialarius. Comparisons of incubation period and stadia between the two species showed that only the stadia for the first instars were not statistically different. Total developmental period was longer for E. varialarius than for E. servus.

The external anatomy of the egg and each of the five nymphal instars is described for each species.

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