Nine-month old jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under four nitrogen fertilization regimes. Levels of total nitrogen and five monoterpenes in new foliage were measured. Fertilization resulted in four significantly different levels of foliar nitrogen; means ranged from 1.8-4.5 percent dry weight. Contrary to predictions of resource availability theory, seedlings grown under the highest fertilization regime had higher foliar monoterpene levels than seedlings in the other treatments. Newly molted, sixth-instar female jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus pinus [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae]) larvae were allowed to feed for four days on new foliage of the seedlings. Larvae that fed on low-nitrogen seedling gained less weight and process more vegetation than did larvae on high- nitrogen seedlings. Larval weight gain was positively related to foliar nitrogen.
McCullough, Deborah G.; Swedenborg, Paul D.; and Kulman, Herbert M.
"Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Monoterpenes of Jack Pine Seedlings and Weight Gain of Jack Pine Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae),"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 26
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol26/iss2/6