The deltocephaline leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, produces low intensity sub- strate transmitted vibrations (signals) to facilitate location of virgin females by males during courtship. In the laboratory, signals produced on maize leaves were received by a phonographic cartridge, amplified, and analyzed on an oscillograph and sonograph. Male calls, that are produced spontaneously, are complex, consisting of three consecutive sections. Section 1 consists of ca. 3 sec of irregular clicks. Section 2 has ca. 4 sec of repeated phrases consisting of a continuous series of 0.4 sec chirps and a roll. Section 3 consists of ca. 5 sec of an intermittent series of 0.2 sec chirps and a roll. Female calls are produced in response to male calls. Female calls are simple compared to male calls and consist of ca. 4-5 sec of low frequency clicking. Signal patterns of G. nigrifrons are compared to those of other leafhoppers and evolutionary scenarios are presented to account for the observed gender differences in signals.
Heady, S. E. and Nault, L. R.
"Acoustic Signals of Graminella Nigrifrons (Homoptera: Cicadellidae),"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 24
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol24/iss1/2