Document Type

Peer-Review Article


Three parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae: Aphelininae), Aphytis diaspidis, Coccobius varicornis, and Marietta pulchella, were recovered from field collections of the pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae, on Pinus sylvestris in central Iowa. Parasitoid mean time (± SEM) to emergence from overwintered scale mummies occurred at 46.6 (4.6) and 23.9 (1.3) days for C. varicornis and M. pulchella, respectively, using a 16L:8D photoperiod and a corresponding temperature regime of 22°C and 18°C. Growing-season parasitism level on field-collected female C. pinifoliae was 15%; parasitoid community composition was 86% A. diaspidis, 12% C. varicornis, and 2% M. pulchella.

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