The goldenrod ball gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae), is parasitized by two eurytomid wasps and preyed on by a mordellid beetle, and two bird species. The birds are known to prey most intensively near a forest edge. The proportion of fly larva parasitized and preyed on by insects was examined, and a decline in the proportional abundance of beetle larvae near the forest was noted. The possible role of birds as the selective force for this distribution is considered.
Confer, John L.
"Spatial Distribution of the Goldenrod Ball Gall Insects,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 23
, Article 7.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol23/iss1/7