Saddled prominent, Heterocampa guttivitta, pupae were placed at 1.5oC for 50 to 200 days, then incubated at one of four post-cold temperatures ranging from 10° to 26.7°C. Adults emerged from pupae exposed to all cold treatment periods. A few adults also emerged from pupae that were not exposed to cold. The time required for adult emergence following cold treatment declined with longer periods of cold treatment and higher post-cold incubation temperature. The interaction between these two main effects was also significant. Adult morphogenesis begins immediately after pupation, and continues until interrupted by cold temperature. When pupae were subjected to desiccating conditions prior to cold treatment, weight loss due to desiccation was accompanied by increased mortality. Desiccation occurred faster at IS.6° than at 18.0°C. Our results identify a physical factor which might contribute to pupal overwintering mortality: prolonged excessive drought conditions between time of pupation and the onset of cold.
Martinat, Peter J. and Allen, Douglas C.
"Response of Saddled Prominent (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) Pupae to Desiccation, Cold Treatment, and Post-Cold Treatment Incubation Temperature,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 22
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol22/iss2/1