Document Type

Peer-Review Article



The occurrence of "puddling" behavior in Lepidoptera has been reviewed by M. J. Norris (1936) by J. A. Downes (1973) and by P. H. Adler (1982). Butterflies have been previously reported on mammalian dung, urine, perspiration, saliva, salt, blood, campfire ashes, aphid honeydew, tree sap and animal carrion. The rarity of female puddling in butterflies, particularly the tiger swallowtail (Papilio glaucus) has been recently addressed by two studies (Berger and Lederhouse 1985, Scriber 1987).

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