Pitfall traps were installed in alfalfa fields to monitor the seasonality and abundance of immature ground beetles. Head capsule widths were determined by instar for Evarthrus sodalis, Harpalus pennsylvanicus, Chlaenius tricolor, Scarites subterraneus, Amara cupreolata, and A. impuncticollis. Seasonality of larval and adult catches indicated that E. sodalis, H. pennsylvanicus and A. impuncticollis overwinter in a larval diapause while A. cupreolata and S. subterraneus overwinter in the adult stage.
Barney, R J. and Pass, B. C.
"Pitfall Trap Collections of Ground Beetle Larvae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Kentucky Alfalfa Fields,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 19
, Article 2.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol19/iss3/2