Glypta fumiferanae and two species of Apanteles parasitized 1st-4th instar jack pine bud worm (Choristoneura pinus). Apparent parasitism of budworm in four Michigan populations ranged from 10.6 to 30.9% for A. fumiferanae, 4.3-16.4% for A. morrisi, and 2.1-9.1 % for G.fumiferanae. A. morrisi probably parasitized 3rd-4th instar jack pine bud worm. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that sampling overwintering budworm larvae is appropriate for estimating apparent parasitism by A. fumiferanae and G. fumiferanae. Sampling budworm larvae at ca. 500 degree-days (base 8.9°C) is appropriate for estimating apparent parasitism by A. morrisi.
Elliott, N. C.; Simmons, G. A.; and Chilcote, C.
"Parasitism of Early Instar Jack Pine Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by Apanteles Spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Glypta Fumiferanae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae),"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 19
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol19/iss2/3