The impact of jack pine budworm on economic returns from jack pine timber production in Lower Michigan and management actions that might be taken to reduce this impact were evaluated with a simulation model. Results indicate that current jack pine rotation ages arc excessive and should be reduced. Insecticide application is not a viable strategy for reducing jack pine budworm impact.
Nyrop, Jan P.; Olson, Jeffrey T.; Mosher, Daniel G.; and Simmons, Gary A.
"Simulation of How Jack Pine Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Affects Economic Returns From Jack Pine Timber Production in Michigan,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 16
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol16/iss4/11