A model for development of resistance to an insecticide in an insect population is presented. The rate of development of resistance increased with increases in the proportion of the breeding population exposed to the insecticide and with increases in the survival from exposure to the insecticide. Restricting application of insecticides to an "only if needed" basis and, within limits, dosages that assure minimal survival of the exposed insects are suggested as means of impeding resistance to insecticides. The huge gene pools represented by the large populations of pest species are assumed to maintain insecticide resistance as a continuing problem in crop protection.
Ruppel, Robert F.
"Some Observations on Insecticide Resistance,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 16
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol16/iss4/1