Document Type

Peer-Review Article


Low levels of (5-15 fold) resistance to synthetic pyrethroid (SP) insecticides occur in unexposed apple orchard populations of the predatory mite, Amblyseius fallacis Garman. Permethrin resistance in one strain has been elevated 60--500 fold by selections in green- houses. Multiple resistances to DDT and azinphosmethyl are present and cross-resistance to SP-related compounds is generic at 10--250 fold. Permethrin resistance appears due to both hydrolytic esterase and knock down resistance mechanisms. Permethrin resistance appears to be polygenic and more recessive than dominant; it is unstable in the presence of high densities of susceptible immigrant types, but is reasonably stable in the presence of unselected, resistant immigrant types. Successful establishment of SP-resistant mites into SP-treated, commercial apple orchards was monitored using electrophoretic finger-printing techniques over a two year period. Aspects of management of resistance in A. fallacis to improve IPM are discussed.

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