A two-year emergence trap study of black flies at four sites in northwestern Pennsylvania yielded 1%3 individuals of nine species. The collections included Prosimulium mixtum, P. jU5cum, Stegapterna mutata, Simulium aureum, S. excisum (recorded for the first time from Pennsylvania), S. gauldingi, S. sp. nr. innacens, S. vittatum, and S. tuberasum. Species richness for all sites peaked during May. Emergence collections below a sewage plant effluent outfall represented fewer individuals and species than collections above the effluent outfall. Chromosomal analysis of supplementary larval collections revealed the IIIL-l and IS-7 sibling species of S. vittatum and the FG sibling of S. tuberasum.
Adler, P. H.; Travis, B. L.; Kim, K. C.; and Masteller, E. C.
"Seasonal Emergence Patterns of Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Northwestern Pennsylvania,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 15
, Article 5.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol15/iss4/5