Malacosoma americanum males were smaller and began to pupate earlier than females. Since the sexes spent the same amount of time as pupae, males also emerged earlier. The adaptive significance of these results is discussed. Emergence data revealed an interesting sidelight; no moths emerged from cocoons inside tents.
Bieman, Donald N. and Witter, J. A.
"Differences in Emergence Date and Size Between the Sexes of Malacosoma Americanum the Eastern Tent Caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae),"
The Great Lakes Entomologist, vol 14
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol14/iss1/8