A Study of H-2 Emission in Three Bipolar Proto-Planetary Nebulae: IRAS 16594-4656, HEN 3-401, and ROB 22
We have carried out a spatial-kinematic study of three proto-planetary nebulae, IRAS 16594-4656, Hen 3-401, and Rob 22. High-resolution H-2 images were obtained with NICMOS on the Hubble Space Telescope, and high-resolution spectra were obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini-South. IRAS 16594-4656 shows a "peanut-shaped'' bipolar structure with H-2 emission from the walls and from two pairs of more distant, point-symmetric faint blobs. The velocity structure shows the polar axis to be in the plane of the sky, contrary to the impression given by the more complex visual image and the visibility of the central star, with an ellipsoidal velocity structure. Hen 3-401 shows the H-2 emission coming from the walls of the very elongated, open-ended lobes seen in visible light, along with a possible small disk around the star. The bipolar lobes appear to be tilted 10 degrees-15 degrees with respect to the plane of the sky, and their kinematics display a Hubble-like flow. In Rob 22, the H-2 appears in the form of an "S''-shape, approximately tracing out the similar pattern seen in the visible. H-2 is especially seen at the ends of the lobes and at two opposite regions close to the unseen central star. The axis of the lobes is nearly in the plane of the sky. Expansion ages of the lobes are calculated to be similar to 1600 yr (IRAS 16594-4656), similar to 1100 yr (Hen 3-401), and similar to 640 yr (Rob 22), based on approximate distances.
Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Smith, Nathan; Su, Kate Y.L.; and Sahai, Raghvendra, "A Study of H-2 Emission in Three Bipolar Proto-Planetary Nebulae: IRAS 16594-4656, HEN 3-401, and ROB 22" (2008). Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications. 92.