Heart Failure in an Era of Reform

Sandra M. Kurpela, Valparaiso University
Theresa Kessler, Valparaiso University


Heart failure (HF) is a growing health problem that affects more than 5 million Americans, with an estimated 400,000 to 700,000 new cases annually (Rothwell, 2012; Silver, Rakel, & Bope, 2004). It is projected that the number of HF patients will continue to grow due to an aging population and advancements in cardiac care. Management of these HF patients will be critical due to changes in the October 1, …