This paper, presented at the Popular Culture Association/American Culture Association National Conference, New Orleans, LA, April 3, 2015, surveys Tolkien's use of the term "living rock" and related language in both a literal and metaphorical sense. Topics discussed include the origins of the trolls, dwarves, orcs, and ents.
"“Ore-ganisms”: The Myth and Meaning of ‘Living Rock’ in Middle-earth,"
Journal of Tolkien Research: Vol. 13
, Article 6.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/journaloftolkienresearch/vol13/iss2/6