One of Middle-earth’s Primary World connections is its position as a written history of events in the distant past. Tolkien actively adopted the medieval traditions of annals, chronicles, and histories, especially in his writings concerning the First Age of Middle-earth, developing a fictional medieval historiography. This paper focuses on annalistic descriptions of three battles pitting Melkor against either the Valar, the Elves, or the united forces of both groups, and compares Tolkien’s descriptions of heavenly battles to depictions of astronomical events in Primary World medieval annals.


An abridged version of this paper was presented at the International Congress on Medieval Studies (Western Michigan University), May 13, 2021.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.