Date of Award


Degree Type

Evidence-Based Project Report

Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)



First Advisor

Christina Cavinder


Breastfeeding provides multiple benefits for mothers and infants. An overwhelming amount of evidence indicates that breastmilk optimizes infant growth and develops the immune system (Yu et al., 2018). Apart from the health benefits for infants, the immediate effects of breastfeeding for mothers include a decreased risk for hemorrhage, stress, and postpartum depression (Flemming, 2021). A mother’s psychological state impacts lactation success, mainly by affecting milk ejection (Dabas et al., 2019). Despite evidence suggesting that relaxation techniques are beneficial for all human beings, it is one of the least commonly used approaches for postpartum mothers (Joseph et al., 2019). The PICOT question for this project was “In breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants, does education on implementation of meditation and music therapy (MT) during breastfeeding, and telephone follow-up at one, two-, and six-weeks post-discharge, compared to the standard of care (three-month follow-up visit at the developmental clinic), increase breastfeeding adherence, and decrease post-partum stress as measured by a patient-reported assessment tool over three months?" Eleven participants from a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) developmental clinic in Northwest Indiana completed the twelve-week within-group project. Participants were instructed to complete a meditation-based audio recording or MT for one 15-minute pumping or breastfeeding session a day. Follow-up telephone calls at one, two, and six weeks served to reinforce education and adherence to the program. At the twelve-week visit, participants were asked to disclose post-intervention infant feeding type along with completing a Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to measure maternal stress. A chi-square test was conducted comparing the frequency of occurrence in infant feeding types pre-and post-intervention. Out of the 11 participants, 8 participants achieved EBF (n=8, 72.73%). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was utilized to compare pre-and post- STAI scores, the p-value (p-value=0.001) is significant (Z = -3.207, p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were observed in increased breastfeeding adherence and decreased maternal stress levels after the two-step intervention.

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

J. Glinski DNP poster.pdf (809 kB)