Date of Award


Degree Type

Evidence-Based Project Report

Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)



First Advisor

Nola A. Schmidt


In the absence of an effective vaccine, the introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 offered a promising new approach to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. However, the introduction of a single-pill regimen which helps to prevent HIV transmission created, in men who have sex with men (MSM) population, a phenomenon referred to as risk compensation resulting in PrEP replacing consistent condom use as a preventive measure (Freeborn & Portillo, 2018; Kumar et al., 2020; Montaño et al., 2018; Ramchandani & Golden, 2019; Traeger et al., 2018). The purpose of the evidence-based practice project was to implement a single, one-on-one behavioral counseling session to improve the frequency and willingness of condom use among MSM who take antiretrovirals for PrEP to prevent HIV infection. Participants were recruited from four HIV/PrEP clinics in Chicago, Illinois. Eligible participants included adult MSM who took antiretroviral medications for PrEP to prevent HIV infection and demonstrated risky sexual behavior, which was defined as having a high number of sexual partners, engaging in high-risk condomless sex acts, or being diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past 12 months. After the initial risk screening, which included participants’ estimation of the percentage of condom carrying and use, the participants received a short behavioral intervention that had been “reframed” to focus on positive aspects of condom use. The risk reassessment, including the percentage of condom carrying and use, was reported by the participants at their 3-month follow-up visit. A statistical test will compare pre-and post-intervention scores. The primary outcome was to increase the frequency of condom use by the self-reported percentage of condom use. The secondary outcome was to increase the willingness of condom use as measured by the self-reported percentage of carrying condoms. Implications for practice will be discussed.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.