Date of Award


Degree Type

Evidence-Based Project Report

Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)



First Advisor

Heather Strickler


Immunizations play a fundamental role in reducing the occurrence of preventable diseases in the population. Injections related to immunization are the most frequent pain-producing medical procedure implemented worldwide and account for nearly 12 billion injections annually (CDC, 2019; Taddio et al., 2015). These procedures are often perceived as simple but can have a variety of complications including pain. This evidence-based practice project addressed the following PICOT question: In college-aged students receiving immunizations (P), does the Buzzy® device (I) when compared to non-intervention standard of care (C) effectively reduce injection site pain (O) over a 12-week time period (T)? The Buzzy® device, which uses a combination of vibration and cryotherapy, was used to reduce injection site pain. This project took place at a Midwest university health center in northern Indiana, and the sample included 38 college-aged students who met the eligibility criteria and consented to participate. The primary outcome in this project was self-reported pain level. Data were collected using a visual pain scale and associated questionnaire; pre-intervention and post-intervention self-reported pain levels were compared using a paired t-test to determine efficacy. The outcomes of this project indicated a statistically significant reduction in injection site pain with use of the Buzzy® device during intramuscular injections. Additionally, the staff at the project site have verbalized intent for continued use of the Buzzy® in the future for needle-based procedures.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.