Faculty Sponsor

Yun Xia


Arts and Sciences


Chinese and Japanese Studies

Presentation Type

Oral Presentation

Symposium Date



This paper examines the nature of the Foreign Pao Chia, an organization started by the Japanese in 1942 and designed to police the Jewish refugee community living in Japanese-occupied Shanghai. The purpose of this research is to discover how the Jewish community viewed the organization and its members. I argue that because almost all young men in the refugee community were required to serve, the organization's members generally had the best interests of the community – and not the Japanese – at heart, distinguishing the organization from similar groups active in Shanghai at the time. Although some have claimed that the organization was used to work against the refugees, I present evidence suggesting that most refugees eventually accepted the organization as a necessary protective measure, rather than a tool used by the Japanese against the Jews.

Biographical Information about Author(s)

Jonathan Mack is a junior accounting and Chinese and Japanese studies double major at Valparaiso University. He began studying the Foreign Pao Chia during a one month collaborative research project in Shanghai with Dr. Kevin Ostoyich, Dr. Yun Xia, and five other students from Valparaiso University. He is active in Asian studies-related campus programs, and plans to one day work as an accountant at an international firm.