On the Top Threats to Cyber Systems

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The technological innovation of cyber systems and increase dependence of individuals, societies and nations on them has brought new, real and everchanging threat landscapes. In fact, the threats evolving faster than they can be assessed. The technological innovation that brought ease and efficiency to our lives, has been met by similar innovation to take advantage of cyber systems for other gains. More threat actors are noted to be sponsored by nation-states and the skills and capabilities of organizations to defend against these attacks are lagging. This warrants an increase in automation of threat analysis and response as well as increased adoption of security measures by at-risk organizations. Thus, to properly prepare defenses and mitigations to the threats introduced by cyber, it is necessary to understand these threats. Accordingly, this paper provides an overview of top cyber security threats in together with current and emerging trends. The analyses include general trends in the complexity of attacks, actors, and the maturity of skills and capabilities of organizations to defend against attacks. Top threats are discussed with regard to instances of attacks and strategies for mitigation within the kill chain. A brief discussion of threat agents and attack vectors adds context to the threats.