Document Type

Book chapter/entry

Publication Date

January 2017

Journal Title

Retinal Development: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology




The embryonic chick has long been a favorite model system for in vivo studies of vertebrate development. However, a major technical limitation of the chick embryo has been the lack of efficient loss-of-function approaches for analyses of gene functions. Here, we describe a methodology in which a transgene encoding artificial microRNA sequences is introduced into embryonic chick retinal cells by in ovo electroporation and integrated into the genome using the Tol2 transposon system. We show that this methodology can induce potent and stable suppression of gene expression. This technique therefore provides a rapid and robust loss-of-function approach for studies of gene function in the developing retina.