The sweet fern underwing, Catocala antinympha (Hubner), sometimes called "the wayward nymph" (Holland, 1968), is one of several lepidopterous defoliators of sweet fern, Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coult. Investigators have dealt only briefly with this insect because it is difficult to collect and rear in quantity and consequently, its biology is poorly known. The early works are basically taxonomic treatises. Barnes and McDunnough (1918b) updated the synonomy which remains intact to date. They placed antinympha as belonging to their Group IV (Catabapta Hulst), a group comprising Myrica (=Comptonia) feeders. Their treatise presents excellent color reproductions of the adult and mature larva. Previously, Beutenmuller (1902) described the six larval instars. The present paper adds a Little more to the distribution, biology, and habits of the sweet fern underwing, with emphasis on Michigan, and includes the known parasitoids and the effect of some of them on the size of the larval head capsule.
Wilson, Louis F.
"Notes on the Biology and Parasitoids of the Sweet Fern Underwing (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Michigan,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 8
, Article 9.
Available at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol8/iss3/9