The parthenogenetic mode of reproduction in Collembola, although frequently questioned in the past (Schaller, 1953; Mayer, 1957; Falkenhan, 1932), has only recently been recorded and confirmed for several species; Onychiutus parthenogeneticus Choudhuri (Choudhuri, 1958), Folsomia candida (Willem) (Goto, 1960; Marshall and Kevan, 1962; Green, 1964; Husson and Paldvody, 1967), Folsomia cavicola Cassagnau and Delamare (Goto, 1960), Tullbergia krausbaueri (Bomer) (Hale, 1966; Petersen, 1971), and Isotoma notabilis Schaffer (Petersen, 1971).
Sex-ratios in populations of the above cited species are often unknown. Existing data indicate that the composition of a population may vary with the geographical distribution of the species. Populations of Folsomia candida (Willem), known to be bisexual in England (Goto, 1960), have been found so far to consist entirely of females in Canada (Sharma and Kevan, 1963a) and in Michigan (Snider, 1973). Similar to I. notabilis and T. krausbaueri (Petersen, 1971), investigations throughout the year and over larger geographic areas are necessary before northern USA and Canada F. candida may be labeled as obligatory parthenogenetic.
Snider (1973) recorded in detail the life cycle of F. candida at 21°C. The present study provides information on the influence of temperature on the bionomics of the species.
Snider, Renate M. and Butcher, James W.
"The Life History of Folsomia Candida (Willem) (Collembola: Isotomidae) Relative to Temperature,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 6
, Article 1.
Available at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol6/iss4/1