North American specimens of the European invasive springtail Orchesella cincta (L.) were compared to several published European haplotypes in a phylogenetic framework using likelihood methods based on a portion of cytochrome oxidase II (cox2). Our analyses provide direct evidence of at least two distinct introductions of this invasive to North America from different regions of Europe. Additional introduction events cannot be ruled out because detection is limited by extremely low sequence divergence among populations inhabiting different regions of the continent. Orchesella villosa (L.), another invasive from Europe, is another candidate for multiple introductions. Herein we include the cox2 sequence from single specimens of O. villosa from Maine and Oregon. Although these two specimens are identical in sequence, they differ from a published sequence from a European specimen by 15%, indicating significant undocumented genetic variation in the natal range of O. villosa. Additional sampling of Nearctic populations of O. villosa might reveal the same situation reported herein for O. cincta.
Smith, Catherine L.; Moulton, John K.; and Bernard, Ernest C.
"European Springtails Orchesella cincta (L.) and O. villosa (L.) (Collembola: Entomobryidae): Vagabond Species of the Nearctic Region,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 48
, Article 1.
Available at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol48/iss3/1