Three parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae: Aphelininae), Aphytis diaspidis, Coccobius varicornis, and Marietta pulchella, were recovered from field collections of the pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae, on Pinus sylvestris in central Iowa. Parasitoid mean time (± SEM) to emergence from overwintered scale mummies occurred at 46.6 (4.6) and 23.9 (1.3) days for C. varicornis and M. pulchella, respectively, using a 16L:8D photoperiod and a corresponding temperature regime of 22°C and 18°C. Growing-season parasitism level on field-collected female C. pinifoliae was 15%; parasitoid community composition was 86% A. diaspidis, 12% C. varicornis, and 2% M. pulchella.
Burden, Daniel J. and Hart, Elwood R.
"Parasitoids of Chionaspis Pinifoliae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Iowa,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 23
, Article 4.
Available at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol23/iss2/4