Two jack pine plantations were established at the Cloquet Forestry Center, Cloquet, Minnesota, in 1942 and 1943, using trees originating from 22 sites in the United States and 10 in Canada. From 1945 to 1953 the incidence of attack by insects and diseases was recorded individually for all trees, and in 1980-1981 the diameter and form of both living and dead trees were recorded. There were differences in the incidence of attack by the pests and in tree response to early injury among the various seed sources. In 1980 and in 1981 there were differences in tree form resulting from insect and both living and dead pest-free trees had the best form. The diameter increases from 1955 to 1980-1981 were almost identical for all categories with the exception of the dead pest-free trees which had the smallest diameters.
Hodson, A. C.; French, D. W.; and Jensen, R. A.
"Role of Insects and Diseases in a Jack Pine Provenance Study,"
The Great Lakes Entomologist: Vol. 19
, Article 8.
Available at: http://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol19/iss4/8